"My brain was drowning in grease."
This quote on page two of the second reading was to me how the author sums up his childhood. An over-oiled, unfunctionable mess of a brain that got sucked into a doctor's vacuum and subsequently led to his lifetime demise. My favorite line from this reading was when he talked about drawing- he didn't do well with words, with his stutter (and brain damage). Instead of communicating through speech he communicated through art. Not very good art, but art in it's own way. Lastly he writes about "slamming" Mr. P., but what got me was not when he threw a book at him out of anger- it was when Mr. P. sat him down and asked him why. He knew it wasn't stupidity- he knew the truth behind his assault, and more than he wanted revenge, he wanted closure. Not for himself, but for Sherman. I found this profoundly impactful and reminded me of something I've always heard my parents say- "actions are just reactions." AND Mr. P. told him to leave the rez! He only wants the best for him! I mean talk about teacher of a lifetime- he's giving him the best advice he can- to leave this place and find somewhere better. Somewhere more suited for his needs. Truly an incredible person that Mr. P. is.
I love how you connected it to your own life and parental sayings!
"All of these kids had given up," he said. "All your friends. All the bullies. All their mothers and fathers have given up, too. And their grandparents gave up, and their grandparents before them. And me and every other teacher here. We're all defeated."
Response: I thought this quote was really crazy. This part in the story was when he was telling the main character to never give up and lose hope. I think that as a community if we want to grow together, we need to really speak what is true and life into people. As humans we either have the power to speak life, or death into people. I also thought this scene was amazing, because he is a teacher that he doesn't even know that well and he is just being really open with him about the things he has done and how he should live his life.
I like how you represented the power of speech as such powerful tool
I think, for Mr. P. to come to his house after he smashed his face in with a geometry text, and apologize to him is incredible. It really reminded me of the "This I Believe" podcast we heard today. It connected in my head, because I feel as if it is somewhat the same situation how people don't want to be slaves to their hatred, or in this case, his guilt. I find myself in situations where I have done things to people that I regret, and do repeatedly. I always get to a point to where I am apologizing like Mr. P. is doing to main character in the story. I know from personal experience, it takes a few bad times to really realize what you are doing and stop. When you look at how he talks about how Mr. P. lives doing nothing all day and showing up in his pajamas, I see that as how he ties that into just everyone giving up. I believe, that there will always at least be one person in your life who tells you the honest truth, or how it is, to save you from becoming or doing something that you will regret in the future. Mr. P., was that person for the main character. So far........
I really liked and understood your quote and description. I also really liked how you related it to other aspects of what we are doing in class. I also made a similar connection to yours. Good Job Buddy!
I appreciate the connection you made to the "This I Believe" essay. Forgiveness is difficult, and regret only complicates matters. I love hearing that you understand you are a work in progress, in fact, we all are. And, I am happy to be the person who tells you the honest truth.
I really love how not only did you tie this quote into something that we learned in class and can all understand but you also connected it back to your life. I think it is great how you chose a quote that you made so many connections to and could really express what you thought.
I really enjoyed how much you tied the story into. Not only did you show your understanding of the quote you showed a connection from the "This I Believe" recording we heard today in class. I think the way you displayed your understanding was a great way to show it!
I totally agree with what you were saying about how incredible it was for Mr. P to tell the main character that he forgives him completely for throwing the book. You did an awesome job connecting it to your own life as well!
Wow, I really liked how you connected it not only with the podcast, but with your real life situations
I really like how you made a really life connection it made the wrote mean more and make more sense.
I liked this quote alot and I really liked your description because it tied into the podcast about forgiveness and moving on. I also liked how you used examples of your life.
"Your a good kid, you deserve the world"
I picked this quote because, well I don't know why, it hit me hard in the chest when I read the words aloud, it hit harder when I said it out loud. The statement to be was a powerful one, every child of any age should be reassured they deserve the world. Kids should be told and understand that being nice and caring is the way you concur the world and make your dreams a reality. A handful of adults have told me those words, but I can't count the amount of times I have told others those exact words. People who are pulled or have low self esteem think they are trash, that the amount they deserve is that of a grain of sand. If someone, someone they loved an trusted told them they deserved the world, could you imagine the feeling of that? The feeling of being greater then what you thought you where, the want to concur the world an the want to make it yours. The author him self had the main character be hit by these word, a kid who has nothing, thinks he is nothing and is treated as nothing has just been told the most inspiring thing he could here. You deserve the world, you are worth the world and no one of your world can make you feel less then that, the simply wording is so powerful, many words could have been put there, many different statements. I think the wording was perfect and I am personally moved and touched by the words my self.
And I am moved by your words. Thank you responding in such a real and honest way. I look forward to reading more of your thoughts!
I love your honesty in this response. You took a first look simple sentence and then went into such depth with it, I can't help but look at the sentence differently. You seem incredibly passionate about this statement and its very admirable and inspiring:)
I really like the quote that you had chosen. I find it very interesting that there are a lot of people who are abused in a way, that they end up with low self esteem. We live in a world that is currently hurting from everything in the last twenty years. Even though it is clearly remembered, there are still people who take the time to tell someone that they mean something.
"If you speak and write in English, or Spanish, or Chinese, or any other language, then only a certain percentage of human beings will get your meaning. But when you draw a picture, everybody can understand it." pg. 5
I found this to be amazing, that a person who had gone through having too much fluid in his brain to having a lisp and a stutter could have so much wisdom. He knew that the best way for him to communicate was to draw, instead of struggling to speak a simple sentence. The way this is written I feel as though the main character optimistic, he doesn't feel bad for himself. His glass half full attitude is shown when he isn't bitter about going hungry all the time "And hey, in a weird way, being hungry makes food taste better." Pg. 8 He doesn't pity himself. He just has what he has. He gets his health and his best friend stripped from him, the author makes him out to be a true hero of perseverance.
The way you put this quite into perspective was a really wise thing to do. It makes us think as to what life would be like if we had the same problems he did with literacy. It's intriguing and inspiring.
Your response made me think about my own childhood. Growing up poor, a sense of humor was so necessary! You had to laugh to keep from crying. I think Sherman Alexie does an incredible job of expressing pain and joy in simple, yet poignant way.
I agree completely with your statement. Through out his writing you can see how intelligent and positive he is. This quote is also one that struck me during the reading, it showed how he overcame his challenges and found ways to express himself. That he was able to find the bright side of most situations he was in. That is truly amazing considering how easy it would be to view his situation negatively.
I completely agree with what you were saying about how surprising it was for him to have such a positive outlook on life even though times are so rough for him. You went into great detail explaining how optimistic he is which I didn't even really notice until now.
When I read this you made me realize how simplistic this book is. But every sentence, every word, is so powerful. The themes change so quickly and drastically its quiet the mix of emotions.
This part of the book kinda of surprised me because in most situations a person that has to deal with all of that would normally feel bad for themselves or have a bad outlook on life.
Its really interesting to see someone overcome a challenge with so little tools, from having such positive attitude to not pitying himself.
I think what you wrote was very true and thoughtful. I think it was good how you put that quote in there and said where it was in the book.
I really like the way how you describe Junior as being a optimistic person, because if I was in that situation I don't know if I would be able to act in the same manner.
This is really heartwarming. I think that its truly inspiring that someone so impoverished, crippled and tormented can still communicate beautifully. Its says that he draws Rowdy's dream and I think is one of the only things that gives hope to the author and to Rowdy. Its like when one of your senses go away, the others become stronger. The same is true of expression. With a stutter and lisp, you really can't communicate with other by voice. So art is the next best thing.
Quote: "They dreamed about being something other than poor, but never got the chance to be anything because nobody paid attention to their dreams"
I think this quote is extremely significant to both the authors way of thinking and in regards to the second personal essay "My First Life Line". The message is simple. People need others to achieve their dreams. They need consideration, kindness, feedback and second chances. They need respect and persistant help from someone who understands and gives them what they need to know that they are doing well. They're not doing badly, they're not going nowhere and they have what it takes to succeed.. These actions will, as a whole, give value to a person who previously had little, power to someone who previously had potential and dreams to someone who previously had despair.
The teacher in the book reemphasizes this point, saying that everyone on the reservation has lost hope of going anywhere other than nowhere and its further supported by Alexie's sister who lost her value, power and dreams when her mentor disappeared or she moved on. People need other to give them strength, or rather, to see in them strength and to help the person find their own. Teach a man life and he will live, tell a man he can be good at life and watch him live happy.
I like the connection you made to last night's essay. I also appreciate your assertiveness.
I really liked the statements you made, and how you put your own little sayings in there.
I like the depth in the quote you chose and how you connected it to your understanding of it.
I like the way you explained your analysis.
Love how you tied in the significance in your own way. Beautiful piece!
"The only thing you kids are being taught is how to give up"
I felt like this quote really summed up the general vibe of life on the rez, even for children. Everyone has seemed to have given up, because all they have ever known is the reservation where everyone lives in poverty, there isn't proper education, and they are in the middle of nowhere. I wouldn't blame them for giving up, and not only that, they have no one to look up to or be inspired by because everyone is in the same position. Generations back have seemed to grow up the same way, even using the same textbooks as they do now. So when Mr. P says this quote, and tells him to not give up and to try to get off the res, it really shows how much he's even tired of seeing people give up, and that someone so smart should have the opportunity to be something more.
I think you described the quote perfectly, that's what I thought reading it too
"'But not you.' Mr. P said. 'You can't give up. You won't give up. You threw that book at my face because somewhere inside you refuse to give up'"
This quote is so inspirational. How many high school freshmen go to school, get mad because the book is at least 30 years older than they are and throw the book at their teacher who befriends them afterwards? I feel like Mr. P is an inspiring teacher, he doesn't just teach math but he also taught about life. How important it is to stay persistant, to not give up. Just by reading what I've read so far in the book I feel inspired by Mr. P (I know that sounds dramatic, but it's true!) He saw that Junior wasn't giving up and told him to never give up, insinuating that never giving up gives Junior hope. I am still amazed by how forgiving some people are (like Mr. P) and how unforgiving others are (like all the kids that would tease Junior).
Mr. P does indeed seems pretty cool. And the ironic contrast between the extreme insensitivity and the extreme sensitivity is one of the more profound ideas in the book so far.
Lucas, I love your responses because they are thoughtful and poetic all at the same time!
I really like this quote you used because I feel like this is honestly something that everyone has felt at some point and really is almost the gist of the story.
"The only thing you kids are being taught is how to give up."
I think that this quote just shows how unsupportive and unhelpful the rez is. It does not teach them to reach for the stars and dream big. It is just filled with bullies and people telling them that they can't do anything. The only supportive persone is Mr. P and because of his past mistakes and setbacks he wants him to succeed and to leave the rez because that is where all the opportunities lie.
I agree a 100% with what you said. Luckily, the students have Mr. P as their first star.
I agree its almost impossible for a young adult to get motivated in life when there is such a depressing environment surrounding him all the time.
I like this quote because it was similar to the quote that we talked about in art "Schools are killing creativity"
Tying in the bullying into the rez was a great way to phrase your piece. Thanks for that!
<SPOILER ALERT> I”ve fallen for junior the same way Miles fell for Alaska young in “looking for Alaska.” by John Green. “suddenly and then all at once.” I love junior, I love his thumbs and I love his cheap Kmart shirt. I don’t understand how he feels. The closest I’ve ever felt to being a minority is shopping for at a sketchy mexican meat market. How is it possible that I hated penelope from the first moment I met her to now, whereas he thinks she’s an angel? How dare she raise money for the poor when there are people with forty year old textbooks twenty miles down the road? Its like lecturing a black kid about racism. The fact that he can be judge so much and judge so little blows me away. Should I try to be more like him or should he try to be more like me? I don’t know. Maybe we need to be more like each other. “your wasting your time.” -Rowdy
"My head was so big indian that little indian skulls orbited it."
This sentence seemed powerful to me. Not only did he know he was different but the other kids taunted him about it and he started to believe even without saying it that he couldn't do what other "Normal" kids could do. He knew he looked different on the outside but he said himself that it was what on his insides of his head that was the absolute worst. He had seizures and such on a weekly basis. So there was no way he could have gotten better. Every time he had a seizure or anything like that just made him worse and there was no going back. He was the way that he was and he had accepted that. He did like to draw and such and did normal things kids would do. He got offended with certain such words and was normal, had normal thoughts but was just a kid who got picked on.
Quote: "There's always time to change your life."
This quote just stopped me when I was reading, that rarely happens with a school assignment. Ever since I started reading this book, the author has really done nothing but paint a dreary, grey painting of what life was like on the reservation, as well as for some occasional bright streaks that would bring fleeting happiness. He uses such a power array of vocabulary that makes it easy to not only see, but understand the misery and the hatred that was present. Then as I'm reading, you have this teacher, who is not even indian, but white. What he does after the author has an intense moment of frustration with not being able to go somewhere in life, is forgive him. It shocked me, it really did. Mr. P (the teacher) was an old man, so naturally I assumed that he may have been an anti-native american white. Yet he wasn't, he gave the author the key to finally leave the reservation, to create his own path. Not the one that the reservation had written for him. I think that the timing for this true light of happiness was perfect, it showed the beginning of a story. It showed the beginning of HIS story, not someone else's and not a continuation of a family member, just his.
The way you worded this response stopped me Morgan. You seem really passionate about what you're saying and it has made me think things over as well. There is more depth to this story than meets the eye, you just have to look.. and you did! I love your analysis
Quote: " My mother and father are drunks, too, but they aren't mean like that. Not at all. They sometimes ignore me. Sometimes they yell at me. But they never, ever, never, ever hit me." (pg. 16 Alexie)
I feel like this is an extremely odd thing for Junior to say because while trying to justify that his parent's version of punishment isn't as bad as others on the rez. Being ostracized by almost all his peers and sometimes his parents, Junior is growing up in an environment that isn't helping him grow socially. While Junior attempts to be open to the ones around him he is continuously shut down, and I think makes him think he's a failure. It makes me wonder if Junior thinks he is going to fall into the same cycle as his parents, and quite possibly be the same disappointment to his own children. This quote also makes me question, I wonder what life would be like for Junior if he wasn't born on the rez?
Oooh, Emily! I love that question! I think about that all of the time because we don't get to choose where we are born, or who are parents are, yet those are the realities that influence our future. The great news is that even though we can't control what cards have been dealt, we do have control over how we play our hand.
"I was nervous. Why was he being so friendly? Was he planning a sneak attack on me? Maybe he was going to smash me in the nose with a calculus book... All of a sudden, I realized he was confessing to me."
I chose this part of the reading because it reminded me of one of the "This I Believe" statements we read in class today. The "T.I.B" (I don't remember it word for word, just the jist of it) had to do with having a predetermined assumption of how something is and being disappointed, when in the end it turns out better than you thought it would. Mr. P willingly opens up to him and not only confesses all of his wrong doings, he tells him about his sister. For a teacher to tell you things you never knew about a family member, confess his regrets, and actually cry in front of their student means they truly and undoubtedly care. Mr.P in a way welcomed the blow to his nose (no pun intended) because he himself hurt many Indian children. Perhaps this pain he received from the book started him on his own road of redemption, and telling Junior to go beyond the reservation to "save" him in a way will help Mr. P fully forgive himself for his past crimes.
I appreciate your analysis of Mr. P's motive! Junior's salvation can lead to Mr. P's own emotional healing.
I am amazed with how true and applicable to real life this is Nicole. You clearly illustrated the author's start to something better. What I really loved about this is, I felt with every word I read, it was creating a bridge between this quote and the real world.
I think this quote shows how many people give up. She had so much potential and she just threw it away. I feel like a lot of people end up doing this, because they think there goals are to hard to reach, and to obtain, they just stop. If he doesn't want to end up like his sister he needs to never give up and strive at Reardan. He needs to set an example for the next generation after him, so they can be inspired to exceed to.
''Mary was a bright and shining star,'' Mr. P said. ''And then she faded year by year until you could barley see her anymore.''
This quote really struck me, because it shows how people can be scared out of doing things, because of what other people think. He is going to have to follow his heart in what he wants to do, and continue to strive. Especially because his race doesn't have a lot of academic success yet.
I really like how concise with this you were! amazing job!
You're right! His success will allow him to be a role model to other residents of the reservation.
This is really true, in most situation when someone has a goal that is a little out of reach or a little too hard they just give up and don't keep trying so they settle for something they never really wanted anyways.
Kevin I agree with your statement, many people have hidden potential but the only thing that is in the way is fear.
"I draw because words are too predictable... I draw because words are too limited."
I chose this quote because a "picture describes a thousand words". Most words can't evoke the emotions that a picture or a drawing evoke. Pictures always have a base meaning and many submeanings and emotions. Words state the obvious and depending on the narrator they may not get the point across. For me, when I write I can never get the point the way I wanted. I say it with not enough of a meaning, its just cut and dry. I agree with the quote that art can express more that words because I like to us photography to explain how I feel; not the limitations of words.
Feel free to incorporate photography into our work this year! I am a verbal/linguistic person, but I so value and appreciate all forms of art. I actually wrote down the exact same quote when I was journaling.
100% Agree with that statement. "Picture describes a thousand words" I think I just might paint something like that on my wall :D
"No, no, it's just a saying. I didn't literally kill Indians. We were supposed to make you give up being Indian. Your sings and stories and language and dancing. Everything. We weren't trying to kill Indian people. We were trying ti kill Indian culture."
I re-read this section because this isn't the first time that the "white man" has tried to kill Indian culture and both times, nobody did anything about it. The strongest cultures are always picking on and bullying the less powerful cultures with nobody that dares stop them or cross the authority.
Very true. It is a sad occurrence that happens frequently throughout history.
'"You've been fighting since you were born," he said. "You fought off that brain surgery. You fought off those seizures. You fought off all the drunks and drug addicts. You kept your hope. And now, you have to take your hope and go somewhere where other people have hope."'
So far through out this book Sherman has described himself as a kid who has always been picked on for his glasses, stutter, lisp and brain damage. As we read further it became more and more apparent just how many people picked on him and thought of him as weak. In this quote Mr. P is telling Sherman that he is not weak, but that he is in fact strong. That he has been fighting his entire life and that is something that no one has really noticed until now.
In this story Sherman has told us how his parents gave up and never pursued their dreams and around the reservation that seems to be all that people do. They dream when they are young and loose hope as they grow older. Mr. P is telling Sherman that there is another option, that that doesn't have to be what happens in his life. I believe that this talk with Mr. P is foreshadowing the events that will happen. I see this conversation as a turning point in Sherman's life and that the story so far has been background but the true story is about how Sherman will pursue this hope and happiness.
I think this is so true. Parents and teachers need to guide students to hope, not just teach them. Its their job as educators to see the potential in a child, see their goals and then help them make it a reality. Mr.P wasn't paid to do that, but with the authors sister, he really tried but as soon as she lost that and her dreams fell into disrepair.
Dang girl! Well said! I liked how you talked about how you can foresee that in his life will become a major turning point for him and his future.
Oops I messed that up "...how you can foresee that this will become a major turning point for him in his life and future."
I agree with your statement, as a kid he has been fighting for survival, though he hasn't seen it, he can see that others have sunk into depression. Mr.P gave him that push that allowed him to "fly".
I totally agree that this passage is a turning point in Junior's life. Parents lead by example, so it's not really a surprise to me that Mary Runs Away has given up on her dreams and Junior is starting to do the same. Mr. P isn't leading by example himself, but he is opening Junior's eyes up to the world's possibilities.
"The only thing you kids are being taught is how to give up"
When I read this, I looked back, and I saw the other parts of the book. I looked at the poverty stricken reservation, where there aren't a lot of, jobs, and where most of the examples of adults in the book are drunks. I noticed that when you read it, even though it was sugar coated with humor, you could see that they had all given up. The adults, the kids, the elderly, they had all given up on becoming something bigger, something better. And because it was drilled into them when they were young, and when they had the most potential. They were basically told that there was nothing there for them, so why try to escape. So I chose this quote, because this far in the book, the common theme is to give up. Sherman had a million chances to give up, but instead, with a little encouragement, he left for a good school, and hopefully a good future.
I like the phrase "Even though it was sugar coated with humor" because it is true. Luckily, Sherman adds the "sugar coating" because this book would be too painful and heavy to read without it.
good one!yeah it is crazy how he found the little bit of courage to leave the rez eventhough there were so many downsides.(no money,getting teased,getting beat up...)
"I draw because words are too unpredictable. I draw because words are too limited. If you speak and write in English, or Spanish, or Chinese, or any other language, then only a certain percentage of human beings will get your meaning. But when you draw a picture everybody can understand it." pg 5
This is one of the best things I have ever read. I love how he brings up the fact that art has no language barriers. You can understand what the emotion behind it no matter what your mother tongue is, even if it is a simple cartoon. I think this really says a lot about how Junior wants to connect with other people. He is tired of living on the reservation and want to find more excitement and more life and wants to meet people who feel like he does. And there is something about visual art that is different from written art, you can say so much more with it in much less space. It's like every piece of art screams "THIS IS HOW I FEEL." And words can easily be misinterpreted or translated wrong or the wrong thing can slip out at the wrong time, but art is deliberate and can be as precise or as vague as you want it to be. It can connect people without regards to time or distance or language.
I love the quote that you used, and I love way you interpreted it.
I love that quote, and you have a really cool perspective on it.
So insightful! It's true; words are definitely not as deliberate as art. However, that's why I love words: I take it as a personal challenge to decipher what they mean in each context.
"You've been fighting since you were born," he said. "You fought off that brain surgery. You fought off those seizures. You fought off all the drunks and drug addicts. You kept your hope. And now, you have to take your hope and go somewhere where other people have hope."
How funny that this quote ties in with the quote I shared with the class today, "People orbit sunny people." Mr. P is telling Junior that he needs to continue to be a fighter. Even though Mr. P is being very blunt, he is truly being a friend and looking out for Junior's well being. Junior doesn't realize that he has always been a fighter. From page one of the book, the reader can see that Junior has overcome many obstacles. Junior needs to take cognitive ownership of being a fighter and surround himself with other hopeful people. However, it would be easy for Junior to stay on the Rez and become a drunk surrounding himself with death. Junior might not realize it now, but Mr. P's advice will save his life.
"But I do forgive you," he said (Mr.P) pg.35
Later on in this quote Mr.P started going on about how forgiving Arnold is the only thing keeping him from smacking him. This is very significant because it reminds me of the TIB we watched in class about the man falsely accused of rape and lost 11 years of his life to prison, come out a new man and the first thing he did was forgive the women that accused him. It really shows what true maturity is and it makes me start thinking maybe this is a better way to live. Instead of being caught up in anger and seeking revenge, maybe just forgiving the person and moving on with your life would make it easier and make you a happier person.
I agree one hundred percent with you on that! What you talked about through this quote shows how instead of living his life negatively and wanting revenge, he chose to forgive her and the outcome is much more rewarding.
I too agree with your analysis, I think that in general, it's better to forgive someone than to live with hatred and anger.
"Poverty doesn't give you strength or teach you lessons about perseverance. No Poverty only teaches you how to be poor." (pg 13)
When I read this quote I could tell that he was angry for being poor he had a somewhat realistic view of his life . The boy had this idea or mind set that because your poor you'll remain poor also feeling that he could never achieve anything because of his circumstance. Already having this idea stuck in his head, reading farther ahead when he speaks to his teacher Mr.P and when he motivates him he said to him "You can't give up. You won't give up. You threw that book in my face because somewhere inside you refused to give up" So in the end the boys whole idea of never being able to achieve anything had changed. So it just proves that in any circumstance it depends on the individual and what he decides to do to get out of his or her situation and rise above.
I thought the Mr.P moment was a very important part to, It really changed Arnold's mindset to something a lot more positive then what he believed while growing up.
Quote: “If you stay on this rez, there going to kill you. I’m going to kill you. You can’t fight us forever.”
I think this is Mr. P’s way of telling Arnie he is better than this, and he can see that Arnie hasn’t given up. He can see the ideas inside of Arnie’s head boiling away. He knows Arnie’s potential. Most of all he knows that this rez can only take it from him. Here on the rez Arnie is destined for depression, and failure. Hope for change is found only if he can leave. Arnie can’t wait any longer, any longer he won't have any fight left in him.
I read further into his departure, and life at “The White Kid School”. It surprised me a little to see them not strike any further violence, after Arnie’s retaliation to their constant name calling. I didn’t expect them to start respecting Arnie because of his race, I figured they would continue behind his back and not confront him at all. Maybe call him “Crazy Horse” or something stupid like that. I just figured it would have limited his social interaction and not benefit it.
I am disappointed in the culture the author has explained in the camp. Its like a place where all the losers go, like a concentration camp. No one ever leaves, and if they can, they get discriminated for it. Meaning if they ever should return the whole town would beat the living daylights out of you. I think its amazing that even thirty year old men would pick on Arnie. Thats a really awful thought. I feel like maybe everyone should just leave...
I think that if everyone were to leave they could have more of a chance in a real city, not a rez. I mean, why are they even on the rez? Are they confined to it? if they are that's unconstitutional. So I suppose its sacred land that they have been living on for generations, which I guess is a pretty good reason to want to stay, but its not like they’ve really had any memories they would want to keep. According to Arnie, everyone he ever knew was depressed there, even the white people. The place is basically hell. Why would you appreciate hell?
I started to think about how Mr. P brought up Arnie’s sisters passion for writing romance novels, and how she lost her energy and eventually the passion died out. I think this was the main factor that scared Arnie into leaving. One day he might end up a rat in the basement like his sister, or just another Indian who gave in.
I liked how you described the camp, as a place where all the losers go. It gives me new insight on how to view the reservation. Good Job!
"And he only talks about his dreams with me. And I only talk about my dreams with him."
This quote shows Rowdy's true personality, if he were not hemmed in by the lifestyle of the reservation. Rowdy has a well earned reputation as a fighter and his teachers believe his only option is to "get meaner and meaner." Rowdy is being forced by his circumstances to give black eyes to other kids instead of setting himself up for success in life. The author is held up as an example of someone who can be successful because he refuses to give up. Mr. P believes the author has a chance at a better life because he wants more and he shows that want. However, Rowdy has dreams just like the author does. The only difference is that Rowdy can't show anyone his aspirations, because his dad has forced him to be tough. Personally, I know that I take the support of my friends and family for granted. I don't have to hide my dreams to protect myself. I don't believe that Rowdy is inferior to the author, only suppressed, because everyone has different abilities. In the next section, I would hope that Rowdy joins the author as he transfers schools, because I want his to be able to succeed.
You have great thoughts into Rowdy's character! I will now see Rowdy in a slightly different light.
"I loved Rowdy for doing that. I felt guilty for loving him for that. But revenge also feels pretty good." -p.22
I did not believe that I would enjoy reading this book as much as I do! It is written in such a way that draws you in and keeps you close, while hooking the minds of every reader. I can tell that this book is one I will recommend to my family!
There are very few cases in which I accept revenge as a reasonable and fulfilling solution to the problem at hand, but I just can not believe that a trio of "men" oh so close to their mid-life crises would assault a young teen with some troubling medical history. It makes one wonder if it is just the bitterness of the air and mood that comes from being immersed and surrounded by a lack of wealth, or some other event that triggered such a lapse of humanity in these adults. It reminds me of children who fight, but one is much older and scolded heavily because they should have known better. I shiver knowing that such simple-minded humans exist in this large world of ours.
Why did you think you wouldn't like the book? Ecstatic that you plan to recommend it to your family!
"I was starting to understand. He was a math teacher. I had to add my hope to someone else's hope. I had to multiple hope by hope."
This quote to me stood out the most from Mr. P. Reading the chapter where Mr. P came to talk to junior I saw so many great quotes to use. Each of his quotes showed his great wisdom and support for junior to become the help that the Rez needs. What I got from this quote reminded me of a class I took over the summer. During this class we were given five minutes to talk about how we will change our lives. At first the class was silent and no one showed an interest, the teacher told us that if we wanted to pass we needed to be a team. The teacher left and we were given time to think. We understood what we needed to do to become a team. When the next student was up to talk we were encouraging at the top of our lungs and to see how a presenter went from shaking and afraid to almost showing no fear at all and being pumped. I feel encouragement can change anything in a persons mind its our choice whether or not we choose to be the difference.
Yes! I wholeheartedly agree! Support can lead to success, but it is the individual's choices that make the difference.
"'I want you to say it,' Mr. P said.
'I want you to say that you deserve better.' I couldn't say it. It wasn't true. I mean, I wanted it to be better, but I didn't deserve it."
I found it really interesting how Junior honestly thinks that he doesn't deserve a better life than his family and friends. His teacher is telling him over and over how Junior has so much potential and yet Junior still refuses to believe it. I think that in a way he feels like his life is already almost completely laid out for him. I think that a part of him was always hoping that his life would turn out a little better than his mother and father's, but he didn't know exactly how to get there or if he wanted to take the risks necessary to get there. He thinks that he isn't any better than any of them, he is just another person like any other. If anything, he thinks of himself as even less as others. Although his parents have their faults, he still views them as better people than he is and for that reason he doesn't want to accept that he is any better and doesn't think he deserves a better life. This quote really showed me a lot about his personality and how insecure he really is.
Kaeli, you bring up some interesting points. I do agree with you that Junior thinks he's just a person like the others, and that he thinks less of himself, but I think that Junior also has some intense weakness inside of him. He was dealt a bad hand. He is "retarded" as the others put it. And he lets that bring him down. I think that Junior is "giving up" on the fact that he may have some true potential, and he's just going to take what he already has. I hope that he grows some more self-confidence throughout the remainder of the book.
" I want you to say it," Mr. P said. " say what?" "I want you to say that you deserve better." I couldn't say it. It wasn't true. I mean, I wanted to have it better, but I didn't deserve it. I was the kid who threw books at teachers."
I think that this quote is very powerful for a lot of reasons. Mr. P was this old person that abused all the kids on the rez for many years, yet there he was, coaching one of those same kids to leave the rez and make something with his life. Junior must have felt so confused after this talk with Mr. P, since he threw a book at him and broke his nose, yet Mr. P is the one apologizing and looking out for him. Hopefully Junior realizes that this advice that he is receiving is what will make his life successful and not end up like his other relatives and friends.
I agree with what you wrote and it is very similar to my writing. It is crazy that Mr. P is able to apologize to someone that just broke his nose!
"You are a good kid. You deserve the world." pg. 41
This quote was said by Mr. P to junior. When I read this I truly believed that Mr. P cared. He believed in a kid that didn't even think he was noticed. He believed in a kid that just disappointed him. It takes a lot for someone to apologize when they aren't in the wrong but to go from apologizing to complimenting is very impressive to me. This just shows me that he truly cares about his students even if he may not show it. I think Mr. P truly believes in juniors future. He was worried that junior throwing the book was a sign of him slowly letting go like his sister did, but this time Mr. P is trying to hold on and make sure Junior doesn't end up the same way.
Mr. P is truly a caring, compassionate man who cares about his students, not only that he had found the strength to forgive junior for his actions. Instead of scolding him and moving on with his life, he sits down and connects with him. Proving that sometimes guidance beats discipline when it comes to shaping a person.
I definitely agree, Mr. P really takes the time to converse with Junior that theres always room for success. It'll allow him too see a more broader perspective that will set him to thrive for what he desires most.
''Some people like rain. But victor hated it . Really hated it. "
I chose this quote because i feel that everyone is not the same. Some people like the rain and others don't, but we have to sometimes get out of comfort zone and join others. I know I am different from other people and I have accepted them as well as myself. I also liked how he thinks that the clouds and rain makes the sadness and lies come out in people.
By the way this is a different book called The Lone Ranger and the Tonto Fist Fight in heaven.
"Poverty doesn't give you strength or teach you lessons about perseverance. No, poverty only teaches you how to be poor."
Wow. This quote completely broke my heart. It is so bleak and desperate, but it strikes me as true. Poverty doesn't allow for many opportunities that could result in a "teachable moment" like other obstacles can; it just makes life utterly miserable. This was especially striking for me after our discussion over whether or not money can buy happiness. It's easy for people like me who have been incredibly fortunate to say that money has no affect on happiness, and to pass judgment on people who feel that it does. I think that, in Junior's case, money would have provided veterinary care for his closest friend. That would have undeniably made him much happier than he is currently.
This quote is, to me, the epitome of the book's tone: sobering and poignant. It makes me want to cry, but I feel I have a duty as someone who has been so lucky in life to understand what life is like for those who haven't been afforded the same opportunities. (I hope that doesn't make me sound self-righteous, or like I pity Junior, or like I think I am somehow better than him, because that is not my intention AT ALL). This book, so far, has really humbled me and made me grateful for everything I've been blessed with.
Wonderful connection to our discussion and I appreciate your honesty!
"We were trying to kill Indian culture"(pg.35)
This qoute really stuck with me because it was soo true and the job of stripping these people of everything they ever knew was given to a man who was an outcast himself,who didn't even know what he believed himself,a lost and scrambled figure of a hired man.I think that this way of basically erasing the Indians hard drive and rewriting it is a horrible way of brainwashing the lost tribes to believe the same things that the "white man" believes so they can 'use' them for their own profit(I'm guessing).I don't really think that junior exactly understands what Mr.P. meant about killing the culture because he is already in a generation where most of the culture has already been stripped from everyone that he knows at the rez.
Thoughtful analysis! Many people dismiss cultural genocide, but it is a legitimate phenomenon.
"Poverty doesn't give you strength or teach you lessons about perseverance. No Poverty only teaches you how to be poor."
This quote particularly got to me because I know how it feels to be poor. It makes you really understand how small you are in this world. You don't feel like your learning a valuable lesson or growing your strength in any way, you just feel weak, small, and poor. That is how I think he felt when he angry expressed this quote from the book. He feels trapped in his rez and doomed to be poor forever, and do nothing about it except, be poor. But farther in the book he gets a little more motivation from a pretty bad experience with his math teacher, and I think that had the most meaning because not only did Mr. P forgive him but he pushed him to be a better person than all the rest of the people stuck in poor doom. I think so far what I am picking up from him is that he is motivated by his not so great experiences.
Isn't it interesting how some "not so great experiences" can destroy a person and other times it can motivate a person. I think it comes down to choice, how we choose to respond to the circumstances we've been dealt.
I don't highlight things in books very often, but I couldn't help but highlight a specific paragraph. Don't worry, Book Rights Activists, I use Kindle; highlighting is pain free for the book this way. It was a moment of unexpected honesty, and those are always especially enjoyable.
"I didn't literally kill Indians. We were supposed to make you give up being an Indian. Your songs and stories and language and dancing. Everything. We weren’t trying to kill Indian people. We were trying to kill Indian culture.”
I believe that this is the most important quote so far. It is such an odd moment; when a man tells another about how much his culture has wronged, and how he was an active participant in the wrongness. It kind of reflects the oddness of Mr. P; that he was able to be so honest.
And it is shocking to me, as a reader, to see such terrible things said so plainly. So far, this book is a simple document of misery, and this is all the misery concentrated to a single quote. In fact, this summarizes most of the story so far, and I have a feeling foreshadows the direction that the story is going in.
I definitely agree that Mr. P was kind of "quirky" for being so admitting and brutally honest. It's kind of a strong thing to see or hear these days, especially with a topic that is so serious. I'm not quite sure that Mr. P's quote is a foreshadow for where the story is headed, but I do think that this could be something that affects Junior.
"And my skull was enormous. Epic." - p.g. 3 Junior
This quote and many others like it show many different things about Junior. First of all it show us how he copes with his problems, by turning it into a joke for his own amusement. It also tells us that he's angry not only at himself but at the world around him, but not in a bitter way. At this point he is on the verge of breaking and "giving up" just like his fellow indians. Here we see that he's grown not to care about himself anymore, besides the beatings. His attitude only changes once Mr. P tells him strait up that he will become like the rest of them, and "die".
Another thing this and similar quotes go to show is that Junior tells it how it is. He doesn't hold back when he tells us what happens, and only sugar coats it with his sarcastic way of coping. He's not afraid to tell the reader exactly what goes down in his life. I personally hope that Junior finds his hope at Reardan and meets other people who will kindle that hope until it can burn on its own.
I like how you tied the disability of his head, and coping with his problems. It fit very nicely.
"But I do forgive you," he said. " No matter how much I don't want to. I have to forgive you."
When I was reading this portion I was so moved by what Mr. P had to say to Arnie. It really had me thinking for a while, and had me even doing some self reflection on the kind of person I was. Mr. P has shown that he is a strong, wise, and intelligent person. He was strong enough to forgive Arnie for his actions, especially since he did not want to. Not only that, he was compassionate enough to teach him a lesson as well. Mr. P could have just dismissed Arnie and moved on with his life, but instead he stayed and chose to connect with him on a personal level. What he had to tell Arnie about how "he dissevered more" was so powerful that it got him crying and was a nudge into a new, different direction of his life. Which was not a punishment, but a second chance.
Im not sure if I got his name right...
Yeah I think you were trying to say Alexie since that's his last name :P
"Can your best friend be more important than your family?"
This quote can be taken so many different ways. It can be related to many different things. This sounds like one of the controversial statements Mrs. Clark was presenting when she wanted the class to take sides. I think that this could even be modified to be more of a statement to base a "This I believe" story off of. I've had many people who I have considered my "best friends," yet, I find it hard to view them as MORE important or meaningful than your family. I would rather choose to say that a best friend can be just as important as family. Better yet, I think the most meaningful and appreciative (sadly, cliché), saying would be that the friend IS family. This makes it a lot more meaningful, at least for me.
I like the way you started, looking at different perspectives. I think it has to do with a specific situation but like the way you worded it so you asked yourself the question.
I agree with Hunter; I think it depends on the family. For example, I am not close with my two siblings so when I need something or someone to lean on, it is always my friends. I wish this wasn't true, and I've tried to reach out to both of my siblings, but sometimes you can't force a relationship.
"But I do forgive you" he said "no matter how much I don't want to, I forgive you"
This quote reminded me of this I believe essay that we listen to during class. The this I believe essay was about forgiveness of people and moving on to be free. And Mr. P is trying to free himself of the guilt that he's feeling for what he has done towards Indians in the past. He does this by forgiving The incident about the book, and then confessing to what he has done.
In addition, this whole section of the book, where Mr. P talks about how everyone has given up, really reminds me of and correlates to the Ted talk that we watched earlier this week in art. This is because Mr. P points out how the schooling systems are stripping kids of their hope and teaching them to give up, which is similar to what they were talking about in the Ted talk where kids are being stripped of their creativity and taught a more analytical style of learning.
And I feel that both of these incidents are going to lead into the next sections of the book because it's gearing him to leave the reservation and to start building his own life.
I really liked that quote because Mr. P was hurt by a student and he understood why he did what he did. I liked the connection that you made with this quote and the Ted talk.
“None can do that, not even the hungriest magician in the world.”
I chose this quote because it gives a good portrayal on how you can hide behind lies, but when real problems come forward you are going to need real solutions. In the end Magic tricks are magic tricks, and it in some ways means “what goes around comes around.” If you make people believe you can pull food out of a hat, when you need to pull food out of a hat, you will starve to death.
I think that your quote represents what is going on in the book because it shows the hard problems that he is facing with no solution.
"He couldn't beat me with his old man fists, but he could hurt me with his old man words."
This quote really stuck out to me, mainly because it shows that words really do hurt and the things that people say can really affect someone more than the things someone does. Once you say something you can never take it back and sometimes time can't heal the wounds left by certain words.
“He's a big goofy dreamer, too, just like me”
I picked this quote because I thought that it represented a lot of what has been going on in the book so far. It not only describes that he is a big dreamer, but that in relation to the other members of the reservation, having creative vibrant dreams is something that is not too common among the people. Most of the people on the reservation have a belief that they will always be stuck there and they cannot fit into normal society, with this reservation being the only life most have known. Towards the end of the reading he is faced with the chance to escape this by leaving everything he knows.
I really see where you are going with yours, how in relation to some of the comments is also a statement to how little of the attributes is possessed in the others around him
"Poverty doesn't give you the strength or teach you lessons about perseverance. No. Poverty only teaches you how to be poor."
This quote stuck out to me because it related to a lot of the quotes we read today in class, even though he was poor he quickly found something that put his mind at ease, with very little he was able to change his attitude towards his situation. What I think we should take from the quote is that you don't need to be able to afford nice things to have a positive attitude, and in his case attitude is everything. Oscar motivated him, I think because oscar was there it let him feel free, and allowed him to stop worrying about things he couldn't change like being a Native American. Money shouldn't come before love, and Oscars showed him that and made him realize that money wasn't the key to happiness.
I'm full aboard on this as well. People should enjoy the little things in life, it'll eventually lead them to finding the pieces to the bigger picture.
"All these kids have given up," he said "All your friends. All the bullies. And their mothers and fathers have given up, too. And their grandparents gave up and their grandparents before them. And me and every other teacher here. We're all defeated." (Page 42)
After I read this particular quote this made me stop and realize how much potential the character has since he's so unique from the rest. I was moved by this because of the bare truth regarding the lack of motivation on the reservoir. The children don't have the proper tools and resources to pursue and reach their academic goals- nor do they have anyone to look up to. Their parents, grandparents, and their grandparents before them remained in the exact position since day one. With Mr. P beside him, this can make him realize that just because someone stumbles and loses their way, it doesn't mean that they're lost forever.
I agree with you that he has more of a chance to escape giving up.
*reservation not reservoir
ever storm runs , runs out of rain. Just like every dark night turns into day.
"I wish I were magical, but I am really just a poor-ass reservation kid living with his poor-ass family on the poor-ass Spokane Indian Reservation." (Alexie 7)
- This quote really came at me like a flashback. In my own way I had once before felt this exact same way when showing up to school as a kid with the same old hand-me-down costume of a cat as I had several years in a row, while other girls had new pretty princess dresses. It always ate at me as a child when I never stoped hearing the words "We don't have the money," or "I'm sorry honey but we just can't afford it right now," from my parents. And from then on this phrase was pounded into my brain: "We have to get what you need, not what you want." As I grew older our family of 6 migrated from one apartment to another,and then to all of us living in my aunts bedroom. I then began to change my feeling towards my parents and our situation.
As a kid, all I wanted was the new stuff like the toys and the dresses, but when I couldn't get it, I would get angry and frustrated as to why other parents could buy anything and everything when mine could not. And there spawned the my own little mindset as Sherman had in the back of my mind: I wish I could get what I want like everyone else, but I am really just a poor-ass Latina girl living with her poor-ass family in a poor-ass state of being. But unlike Sherman, my mind set was very short lived.
As I grew up I had seen my parents struggling and overworking themselves to give me and my siblings the childhood that they wanted us to have. And from then on I had realized that my goal in an essence is about the same general goal that Sherman begins to strive for: a better life (and coincidentally for both of us that means education that exceeds our parents' education). From then on I also began to really see things how they are and also be grateful and happy with how I grew up. I mean, if I hadn't grown up that way I wouldn't be the same person I am today and life for me would have been completely different.
I guess really what I had gotten from this quote and everything that he references of the same theme, is that I had a pretty deep connection as to how he felt and what he had expressed in the early years of his life.
Oh, Eli! I can relate to your response on sooooooo many levels! Especially, your sense of gratefulness for your life experience because you are capable of understanding certain aspects of life that others may not have experienced. It makes you stronger!
" He likes to pretend he lives inside the comic books. I guess a fake life inside a cartoon is a lot better than his real life."
I chose this quote because I and perhaps other have felt the same way. Rowdy is a kid who constantly gets beaten by his father. The only safety and appreciation he receives is from his best friend Arnold. Sadly, that doesn't compare to the appreciation of a parent. Rowdy has used hatred as way to forget pain, by inflicting pain on others he is able to forget the pain that others have inflicted on him. He uses comics as an escape from his life and is able to forget his hatred and indulge himself in joy. In Richie Rich he dreams of having luxury things and living a life outside of poverty and living a life in wealth. In Casper The Friendly Ghost, he believes that he is able to do good for others, and instead of being known as threat he is known as friend and support. In Archie he wants to live a normal high school life, he wants to have friends and learn how to love instead of hating.
In conclusion I believe that all of us have used something as an escape from a situation in our lives. We all have dreamed and have looked up to someone, by dreaming we are setting goals to make a change whether it be good or bad. Rowdy and many others dream but never accomplish. He and others dream but aren't capable to make it a reality. The reason is that many people shoot down the ideas and goal of other because of how foolish it may sound. In poverty many dreams aren't possible but there are people who are able to escape and actually making it possible to "swim".
This is also reminds of the song "Black Boy Fly" by Kendrick Lamar. Same situation ,different location.
Your response gave me chills! You interpreted and analyzed the quote beautifully and helped shed light on the fact that this is a reality for many people in our society. Not everyone escapes.
"Well, she wasn't shy about the idea of writing books. She was shy about the kind of books she wanted to write."
This particular quote really stood out to me. Mary is described as being a tough person,so Junior is genuinely surprised to hear this sort of thing about his sister. It's just another example of how it doesn't matter how a person may appear, everyone has their own dreams and everyone can be put down.
Aside from that, I really connected with this quote as a shy person who also has stories she wants to tell. It's easy to be discouraged when imagining what others around you might think and say about any kind of work you do. It can be extremely hard for me to put myself out there or present even the simplest thing. Despite that, I still enjoy drawing and writing stories and have no plans to stop anytime soon.
You're right, sharing your work or speaking publicly can be a vulnerable place, but I think it is worth the risk. Because if you keep everything to yourself then the world misses out on all of your thoughts, ideas, writing, art, and talent!
"It sucks to be poor,and it sucks to feel that you somehow deserve to be poor. You start believing that you're poor because you're stupid and ugly. And then you believe that you're stupid and ugly because you're Indian. And because you're Indian you start to believe that you're destined to be poor. Its an ugly circle and there is nothing you can do about it"
He felt like he should start believing that he would never be "not poor" and that there is no escape from that life like many did at the reservation.This quote also really stood out to me because sometimes on my way home I take an alternative route to skip freeway traffic and I pass through a small unincorporated town that is mostly populated by Native Americans that do not live on the reservation and it is 15 miles away from my home. The times that I pass through there I feel so sad because I see broken homes with Native Americans sitting on their front porch doing nothing because they have lost it all but they don't know how to get it back because they believe that they should just give up and not work to have a better life. That's why they turn to drugs and alcohol to cope with the pain of having nothing. I hope that one day these people will find strength the way Sherman did and seek out a better life.
What do you think it will take for that to happen?
I think that they need to find the will power in themselves and think that they can do better in life then what they are currently doing.
That quote really hit me too and I really like how you included your own experience and hope for them
"I wanted to punch mt dad in the face. I wanted to punch him in the nose and make him bleed. I wanted to punch him in the eye and make him blind. I wanted to kick him in the balls and make him pass out."
In this quote you can tell that he was super angry and sad to lose his bestfriend. Other than him getting bullied and picked on, living in poverty, and barley having any friends, Oscar was the only one who cheered him up and gave him happiness, besides Rowdy.
This reminded me of my dog a while back when she passed away in an accident with out me even knowing until the next day. Once I found out that she was gone I got angry and depressed. I couldnt even believe that she was gone forever. I felt the exact same way he did. But, I realized that I had to keep on moving forward and to not let my past ever bring me down.
I am so sorry to hear about your dog. I can't even imagine losing one of mine, but I love your commitment to not ever let what happens in our past affect our future.
"But he is my best human friend and he cares about me.."
I have picked up this one because everybody needs and can have a friend. Even he. He has lost one already and Rowdy was only left. That is a kind of sad fact but there is a still Rowdy. Without him he would have been desperate. No matter how Rowdy can be mean he is a still onlyone who gives him support and only who cares. It means a lot. It means a lot in our age. Knowing that someone belives in you and helps you is a kind of big thing. If a friendship lasts longer than 7 years, psychologists say that will lats for a liftime. Thier lasts fourteen years. You can not seperate them. Mr. P later was telling Arnold to leave and go away from Rowdy. I hop that will not happen in the following parts of the book.
Wow! I didn't know the statistic you shared about the seven year friendship. I like it. Do you think it is better for Arnold to stay on the Res just to be with Rowdy or do you think he should pursue a better life for himself?
I think that Rowdy should go with him and then they can find better life for both of them.
“Come on,” I said. “Who has the most hope?”
“White people,” my parents said at the same time.
This is the sad thing about Indian reservations in this country. They’ve been so marginalized over the years, that to me it seems that they only exist as an excuse for the government to say “Yeah, we care about Native Americans”, even if that isn’t true. On Indian reservations, many people are alcoholics, many people have health problems, and it’s just not a happy environment, and I really doubt this is because of the Native Americans themselves. It’s because of the quality of healthcare and jobs they have access to, the fact that they’re essentially kept poor from generation to generation. As Mr. P said, they used to try to kill the Indian in the kids, because they wanted to slowly remove the culture until they were brown on the outside and white on the inside. It seems to me like the reservations in the US are just a sorry apology from the US government for the Europeans that came here hundreds of years ago and took the land for themselves.
Very thoughtful analysis Ben!
I really liked the quote you are a good kid you deserve the world on page 41 i thought this was a key moment in this book. I think mr.P said this because they were talking for quite awhile and it was quality bonding. I think it was a good thing for mr.P to say something like that because its good to boost a kids confidence every once and a while.
"You are a good kid you deserve the world"
"It's not like anybody's going to notice if you go away"
This quote is said by Juinior's friend Rowdy. Rowdy says this because Junior waned to disappear from the world after Oscar dies. The quote shows how Junior's friend doesnt seem to care much for him. Also it makes Junior seem like a nobody in life. I believe that if anyone dies, no matter who they are, someone is guaranteed to notice that they are gone.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.